3 mental disorders, threatening the residents of cities

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mental disorders
mental disorders

Big city is the most aggressive environment for you mental health, and the reason for that is ubiquitous competition: at work, in transport, on the roads, in stores, in queues…

Universal competition breeds a negative attitude among people towards each other, sincere emotions don’t count anymore, pragmatic values dominate.

The phenomenon of solitude in the crowd develops among enormous hordes of people. Total lack of time and money exacerbates the situation. Any “last straw” could cause the development of a mental disorder.

According to the statistics, every fourth inhabitant of our planet suffers from a mental illness. What is even more shocking is that by 2020 the situation is going to deteriorate. However, here we are talking mostly about milder forms of the known mental diseases, not about severe cases.

Depression

By 2030 depression will be among the top three causes of disability and mortality. Because of depression workers usually also have to take the sick leave for a long time to recover fully and completely.

Unfortunately the official statistics diverge greatly with the real situation, but there is a solid proof that every fifth person has suffered from depression of varying severity. What is also frightening is that 50% of patients with depression do not seek medical help, while from 45 to 60% people with a mood disorder like  depression die by suicide.

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Facts about Depression

1.Women are diagnosed with a major depression as twice more often as men. It happens because women usually are not afraid to seek for medical help whereas men try to “drink away” their depressive mood;

  1. The symptoms of severe depression occur in 18-39% of cancer patients, as well as in 15-19% of people who are ill with myocardial infarction. From 25 to 60% of the patients are suffering from various degrees of depression, but they do not recognize it as a disease and usually think that it is some psychosomatic illness;
  2. Most often depression is diagnosed in middle-aged people, aged from 35 to 55 years, however, the current tendency is such that more and more cases of depression are registered among the adolescent. Tragically enough, the highest percentage of adolescent suicides is found among people with a major depression;
  3. Residents of big cities suffer from depression much more frequently than villagers;
  4. The higher the income, the more likely you are going to suffer from depression: in countries with relatively high income the symptoms of depression are observed in 28% of the population, and in countries with low and middle income – 20%.

Major Causes of Depression

  1. External factors: divorce, loss of a loved one, work or social status, severe material losses, social and economic turmoil, high levels of stressogenic life – all this contributes to the development of depression. Thus, the risk of depression occurrence among divorced people is 2-4 times higher than in a family;
  2. Abuse, a disaster, an accident, a war, a significant event (the birth of a child, for example) provoke the development of depression in most of the cases;
  3. Depression can be also hereditary: there is a risk of depression development if one of your relatives was diagnosed with this disease.

Anxiety disorders

Anxiety, fears, panic attacks, phobias  are all anxiety disorders, incidence of which is very high: 15-18% of adults suffer from anxiety disorders.

Panic attacks are officially recorded in 2-5% of the population, however, many people do not seek professional help. The risk of experiencing a panic attack during your lifetime is 3-5%. Women experience panic attacks as twice often as men.

From 10 to 14% of adults suffer from different phobias. From 5 to 13% of the population suffer from social phobia (fear of society). Women suffer as1.5 times more often as men.

Major Causes of Anxiety Disorder

Anxiety disorders mental disorder 3 mental disorders, threatening the residents of cities mzl

1.The hereditary cause: if the mother suffers from anxiety disorder the child is likely to have this disorder as well;

  1. Personality type: anxious, impressionable and insecure people are more likely to develop anxiety disorders;
  2. Usually anxiety disorder develops in a person at the age of 20-30 years, when the person is most vulnerable to phobias and panic attacks;
  3. Depression increases the risk of getting anxiety disorder, and vice versa anxiety disorder may contribute to the development of depression;
  4. Stress, psychological trauma can be the trigger for the development of anxiety disorders.
  5. Alcohol and drugs provoke mental illnesses, including anxiety disorders.

Schizophrenia

Only 1% of the population suffers from schizophrenia, and the differences between developed or developing countries are not detected, we can only link the number of patients with the city size: the larger the place is, the more it has schizophrenics.

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Unfortunately the number of patients with schizophrenia is still growing, mostly because milder forms of schizophrenia are also being registered nowadays. It is the weak form of schizophrenia that predominates in the cities. It is worth mentioning  that about one third of patients with schizophrenia attempt to commit the suicide.

Major Risk Factors

  1. Living in a big city: 20 out of 100 000 citizens get sick with schizophrenia per year, and in the country – only 13 out of 100,000;
  2. Schizophrenia rarely manifests itself in the childhood or at an older age. Usually this disorder develops in people aged 18 to 30;
  3. Problems at work, stress or financial difficulties can provoke the development of schizophrenia;
  4. Schizophrenia is also a hereditary mental disorder. If both parents are ill with schizophrenia, the risk of disease development in a child equals 40-50%. If only one – 5-10%.
  5. It is not yet known whether the disease is a result of alcohol and drug abuse or, on the contrary, the abuse starts as a result of development of the disease. However, most scientists agree that psychotic drugs can provoke the manifestation of schizophrenia if there is the hereditary predisposition.