Monday, January 22, 2018
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Threat of Sleep Deprivation. Why it is not enough to sleep off during the weekend.


Why it is not enough to sleep off during the weekend.

The whole week we look forward to the weekend so that we could stay in bed a little bit longer, recover and regain strength. But we do not realize that even three nights of good sleep are not able to offset the effects of regular lack of sleep. As a result, the brain loses the ability to cleanse itself of toxic substances; that is why we do not feel refreshed even if you sleep till noon.

One of the most important scientific discoveries is that sleep, in essence, works like a brigade, to purify the brain from toxic proteins that accumulate between brain cells throughout the day. Maiken Nedergaard, a co-founder of the Center for Translational Neuromedicine, University of Rochester, studied the mechanism underlying the cleansing function of the brain. “It’s like a dishwasher, – she says. — We don’t eat with dirty dishes, so why do we agree to live without using all the power and full potential of our brain?”

brain sleep Threat of Sleep Deprivation. Why it is not enough to sleep off during the weekend. brain

The research that Nedergaard conducted on mice showed that the lymphatic system (the “sewer system” of the brain) is more active during sleep and plays a critical role in maintaining the brain in good condition. When the mice were asleep, their brain cells shrank, freeing up more space for the spinal fluid, which is freely flowing through the brain, literally washing out the toxic deposits, the formation of which is associated with the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Preliminary studies have shown that a similar process may occur in the brain of people — a fact that could be an important breakthrough in the prevention and treatment of dementia. The leaching of unwanted chemicals and toxins occurs during sleep only, because when we are awake, the brain is too busy running the other functions of the body. As Nedergaard says, “the brain has a limited amount of energy and it must choose between two opposing functional states: awake (to stay awake) or sleep (and to do cleaning). It’s like taking the guests: you can either entertain them or clean the house, but doing both simultaneously is impossible.”

sleep sleep Threat of Sleep Deprivation. Why it is not enough to sleep off during the weekend. sleep 2

If the brain does not have enough time to wash all the unnecessary toxins and chemicals, it might have very serious consequences. According to Claire Sexton of Oxford Center for Functional MRI of the Brain, regular lack of sleep leads to a decrease in the brain size. Claire reported: “We found out that poor sleep quality increases the likelihood of reducing the volume of the brain in three to five years. At the moment, the question is whether lack of sleep causes changes in the structure of the brain, or it is the consequence, or those are two interacting processes.”

sleep Threat of Sleep Deprivation. Why it is not enough to sleep off during the weekend. sleep 300x200One thing is clear: the health of the brain depends on the quality and quantity of sleep. Regular lack of sleep gradually leads to the irreplaceable loss of brain cells; it is another argument in favor of the fact that staying in bed on the weekend longer  cannot compensate lack of sleep on weekdays. The researchers from the University of Pennsylvania and Peking University conducted a joint study where they found out that mice, suffering from sleep deprivation, lost 25% of the brain cells responsible for the mental activity, concentration and cognitive function. “In general, we always assumed that full recovery of cognitive activity is possible after short or long-term sleep deprivation, – said Sigrid Veasey, one of the study’s authors. — However, several studies on humans indicate that even after three nights of proper sleep some of the functions of cognitive activities are not normalized. This raises the question of which consequences of lack of sleep are irreversible”. She also added that until recently, “no one thought that lack of sleep can really influence the performance of the brain.”

Excerpts from the book “The Sleep Revolution” by Arianna Huffington”


Good Stress: Joy and Awe


How stress can lead to the goal

Stress is a mechanism that allows us to survive in dangerous situations, mobilize to solve important problems and achieve a variety of goals. Stanford University professor Kelly McGonigal talks about how our brain functions in stress situations, activating short time incredible superpowers.

As Walter Cannon pointed out, the reaction of “fight or flight” is triggered by your sympathetic nervous system. To make you more alert and ready for action, this system makes your whole body mobilize all available energy resources. The liver dumps into the blood fat and sugar, which serve as fuel. Breathing becomes deeper so that the heart could receive more oxygen. The heart rate accelerates so that oxygen, fat and sugar could get to muscles and the brain faster. Stress hormones such as adrenaline and cortisol, help the muscles and brain use this energy more efficiently. As a result, you are ready to overcome any obstacles.

It is this response to stress that provides a person with exceptional physical capabilities in special situations. In the news we can often see news about the incredible power that a person gets in stressful situations — for example, the story of two teenage girls from Lebanon, Oregon, which managed to lift an enormous tractor, which ran over their father.

“I don’t know how I was able to lift it up, it was very heavy, — said one of the girls. But we just took it and raised”. Many people go through great stress from time to time. When something very important is at stake, the body uses all the energy resources to do what is necessary.

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The energy that gives you stress, not only helps the body, but also stimulates the brain. Adrenaline heightens your senses. The pupils dilate to allow more light, hearing becomes aggravated. Thus the brain processes the signals coming from the senses faster. Unnecessary thoughts of less important tasks temporarily lose their relevance. Attention is focused, you absorb and process more information.

A chemical cocktail of endorphins, adrenaline, testosterone and dopamine gives rise. This is one reason why some people like to experience stress — it gives them exhilaration. The combination of the above substances increases your sense of confidence in your own abilities. You can act more purposefully and to strive to get things that are able to give you satisfaction. Some scientists call this side of stress “excitement and trepidation”. Such feelings experience skydivers, parachutists, lovers. If you have pleasant goosebumps from participating in gambling or when trying to do complex work to meet the deadline, then you know what it is.

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When we are talking about true survival, these physiological changes manifest themselves most strongly, and you may have the classic reaction of “fight or flight”. But if your life is not threatened directly, the body and the brain switch to a different state — the reaction of reaching the target. Like the reaction of “fight or flight”, this stress response gives you strength and helps operate in difficult conditions. The heartbeat quickens, adrenaline rises, muscles and brain get more fuel, and the “good mood hormones”. But this reaction differs from the previous one in several important respects. You feel focused, but not scared. The level of stress hormones is also different; DHEA levels increase, which helps to recover from stress and to embrace useful experience. As the result the index of your stress reaction grows — so it means that there is a positive correlation of stress hormones, which determines how useful or harmful stress will be for you.

stress stress Good Stress: Joy and Awe stress

People who are completely immersed in what they do, and experience this pleasure, show clear signs of the reaction of reaching the target. Artists, athletes, surgeons, gamers, musicians, completely devoting himself to their favorite occupation, experience the reaction to stress. The best in these areas do not remain cold-blooded under the pressure of difficult circumstances; more accurate to say that they have a stress the reaction of reaching the target. It gives them access to mental and physical resources which, in turn, provide increased confidence, concentration, and quality activities.

Excerpts from the book “The Upside of Stress: Why Stress Is Good for You, and How to Get Good at It” by Kelly McGonigal.

10 Mistakes in the Skin Care


Sometimes we don’t have time to do a manicure or a fashionable makeup, but it’s not so terrible. But what’s really important is to take care of the skin properly. And you should do it not from time to time, but every day.

We talked with experts and learned about the 10 mistakes that women make often, when taking care of the skin. Some of them ordinary and obvious, but you should not forget about them anyway!

Mistake 1: Wrong Skin Care Choice

Be careful when choosing the morning and night creams for the face, it is very important to take into consideration your skin type. Tools, perfect for your best friend, absolutely cannot suit you. So choosing a cream, seek the advice of an experienced beautician or, in the case of a skin condition, talk to your dermatologist.

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Mistake 2: You Forget about Sunscreen

No matter what the weather or time of year is out there now, your daylight tool for the face should have SPF of at least 15. Even if you only take a 10-minute walk to metro. There is always a risk to catch harmful UV rays, and they are one of the main causes of premature aging of our skin.

Mistake 3: Ignoring Basic Rules of Hygiene

Before you get down to cleaning your face, be sure to wash your hands with soap and water. Otherwise, you can leave bacteria, dirt and oil on the skin, which might cause pimples. For this reason, try not to touch your face when you are in public places. Also, you should have separate towels for the face and hands.

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Girl in the shower

Mistake 4: You Don’t Wash off Makeup Before Going to Bed

In any case, do not be lazy to remove makeup before going to bed. Especially if you use a lot of cosmetics. To be safe, keep wipes for removing makeup and moisturizing cream on the bedside table. This will allow you to get rid of mascara and eyeshadows on the eyelids, when you have no strength to walk to the bathroom and make it right.

Mistake 5: You Use the same Cream All Year Around

The new season should mean that you should change all your skin care cosmetics. In winter our skin needs cosmetics with a stronger moisturizing effect, in summer cosmetics should be light and with a high level of SPF protection. Besides, every woman has her own individual skin features. For example, someone may be allergic to the sun. All this must be considered, when choosing day and night creams for everyday use.

Mistake 6: You Forget about Your Neck

Neck skin 10 Mistakes in the Skin Care neck 300x225The skin of the neck is exposed to aggressive environmental influences as much as the face. Many women forget this and begin to look at the neck much later, when the neck starts aging. We should not forget about this important part of your body: use moisturizers and sunscreens.

Mistake 7: You Don’t Eat Healthy Food

Our appearance is the result of the work of the whole organism. No expensive cream or visits to the beautician will not make your skin look fresh and beautiful, if you abuse alcohol and eat fatty and sugary food. In addition to proper nutrition, we should not forget about the phytonutrients and antioxidants that have to be in your food. Eat more fresh greens, vegetables, fruit and don’t forget about Super foods.

Mistake 8: You Abuse Scrubs

Any moderate cleaning is good. It is not necessary to use scrubs and peeling gels more often than every 7-10 days. Otherwise the top layer of the skin will be damaged and become vulnerable to rapid contamination and decay.

Mistake 9: You Don’t Drink Enough Water

It is one of the golden rules to drink more still water! It is absolutely necessary for the health and beauty of the skin, making it supple and smooth. To calculate the necessary amount of water is easy: 30 ml per 1 kg of body weight. Till 3 p.m. you should drink two-thirds of the daily allowance because evening fluid intake often leads to swelling and bags under the eyes.

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Mistake 10: You Don’t Get Enough Rest

High-stress levels and sleep deprivation are not the best way to affect the condition of the skin. Be sure to go to bed on time, not forgetting to turn off at night your mobile phone. It would be also very useful to take a brake from work for a short meditation or a simple 10-min relaxation.

Dangerous Sex


The dangers that lie in wait for lovers. What makes sex so dangerous and what consequences violent sex could lead to. 

Everyone knows that sex can be dangerous because of the possibility to be infected with sexually transmitted diseases. But unexpected health problems can occur during lovemaking, even with a close partner, whom you are sure 100% about.

Dangerous Sex in the Car

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Sex in car

An elevator, airplane bathroom, a bathtub, a miniature city car – all these unusual places for lovemaking have become popular mostly because of the movie industry promotion. In everyday life, having sex in those places is not as easy as it seems. Choosing one of these places, you risk fainting or even getting a heart attack. The reason is the lack of oxygen during the active work of the heart and lungs.

Honeymoon Cystitis

After the holiday season there is always much work for doctors. This is due to the fact that unusually active daily sex can undermine a protective system of the urinary organs and lead to inflammation – cystitis. Signs can be various: minor inflammation, itching, burning, pain when urinating and even secretions.

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In women, honeymoon cystitis can also cause the vaginal microflora disorders and bacterial vaginosis and inflammation of the vagina – vaginitis.

Dangerous Missionary Position

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Missionary position

The classic position, when lying face to face, is known as a missionary position. It  could be dangerous if a woman decides to put her feet on the shoulders of her partner. Too active movements of the penis can lead to the rupture of the vaginal vault. Petite women need to be careful with the “doggy style” position. When a woman turns on her hands and knees, the length of her vagina decreases and any bad move can cause pain and even a rupture of the internal tissues of the vagina.

Dangerous Oral Sex

Oral sex is not as safe as it seems as well. If a woman caresses a man, she can harm his penis with her teeth, but the man can cause harm to the partner if his sperm gets into her airways after ejaculation. Be careful when performing oral sex with a condom: one bad move and the rubber band can slip off the base of the penis and lead to the woman’s suffocation.

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Better not to Bite

rose dangerous sex Dangerous Sex rose 300x254Cunnilingus is a safe form of oral sex, but if the partner is not tender and delicate enough, the clitoris could be damaged. The greatest risk is bleeding, which may occur because of bites. In this case, you need to call a doctor as soon as possible, but before his arrival, apply ice to the wound.

Dangerous Sex for Men

The rupture of the frenulum is an extremely painful injury that occurs due to too much tension of the foreskin during rough sex. Not to notice the rupture is impossible – severe pain and bleeding make the further sexual intercourse unbearable even for the most active partners. Do not try to fix the problem yourself, it is better to call an ambulance, and before that try to stop the bleeding, pressing with a finger the frenulum from the bottom.

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Penile Fracture

The diagnosis like a “penile fracture” sounds comical, but only as long as does not affect you personally. In fact, it is not a fracture in the usual sense of the word, when a bone is broken, but a rupture of the tunica albuginea and corpus cavernosum of the erect penis. This can happen due to a violently active sex, when the man goes “off target”. A loud crunching sound, intense pain, hematoma that forms on the penis, – all signs of a fracture. Don’t waste time – immediately call an ambulance or go to the surgeon yourself. Time is of the essence!

Dangerous Fantasies

sexual-fantasy dangerous sex Dangerous Sex sexual fantasy 300x169A variety of toys from sex shops that are worn on the penis should be detachable. Otherwise you risk being without a penis. If the base of the penis is tied up with a rubber band, ring, or a rope, there is a possibility that you simply will not be able to remove them when the penis will be erect. This can lead to edema, impaired blood circulation, and in the worst case to gangrene.

How Hypnosis Works?


Scientists are close to uncovering the secret behind the effect of hypnosis on the brain.

Neuroscientists from Stanford University have observed what happens in the human brain during the trance state during hypnosis, and revealed several zones, changes in which can cause this condition, according to an article published in the journal Cerebral Cortex.

“Now we know which zones of the brain associated with the state of trance, and now we have the ability to use this knowledge in order to make someone more or less susceptible to hypnosis or enhance its effectiveness in individual cases. For example, we can help people using hypnosis to fight pain,” said David Spiegel at Stanford University (USA).

Spiegel and his colleagues found out how hypnosis works, observing changes in the activity of various parts of the brain and the fluctuations of the brain waves at six dozen volunteers, who tried to get rid of stress, pain and anxiety with the help of hypnosis.

What_Are_the_Various_Health_Benefits_of_Hypnosis hypnosis How Hypnosis Works? What Are the Various Health Benefits of Hypnosis

As the scientist pointed out, today almost all of the doctors have no doubts in the therapeutic potential of hypnosis, but no one knows how and why this phenomenon works, transferring a person into the state of heightened suggestibility, allowing the psychologists to deal with a variety of disorders and negative phenomena in our psyche.

Stanford neuroscientists wondered why only 10% of the population responds well to hypnosis, and most of the inhabitants of the Earth either can hardly react to it, or are even immune to its actions. Trying to answer this question, scientists selected 30 volunteers, who were most exposed to the effect of hypnosis, and a similar number of “non-believers” in hypnosis, who did not react on hypnosis at all.

Observing the work of their brain using MRI at rest and during hypnosis, scientists have tried to find the differences in how the nervous system of “hypnotized” and “non-believers” in hypnosis reacted to the attempts of the scientists to put them in a trance.

This technique allowed Spiegel’s research group to highlight three zones of the brain, which activity and nature of the relationships with other parts of the nervous system changed dramatically in hypnosis. One of them is the back part of the anterior cingulate cortex, the neurons connecting the rear portion of the frontal cortex and the so-called islet brain and cells, connecting this part of the cortex with the so-called network of passive mode of operation of the brain (DMN).

How Hypnosis Works hypnosis How Hypnosis Works? How Hypnosis Works

The first zone, as the researchers noted, is responsible for rational thinking, the second group of cells for control of the body, and the third for the consciousness and the understanding that a person performs some action. In the first and third zones the level of activity during hypnosis decreased, and the second increased, and the lack of similar reactions in the brain of “non-believers” can explain why hypnosis is not working.

This fact, according to the scientists from Stanford, can be used to create “hypnomatic” devices, which will temporarily enhance a person’s responsiveness to hypnosis, affecting these regions of the brain using magnetic fields. This will help them, the neuroscientists hope, to deal with the pain and mental disorders better using hypnosis and trance.

Children Are More Moral Than Their Parents

Children Are More Moral Than Their Parents

Scientists have discovered that modern young people are less loose than “Generation X”.

Adolescents and young adults born after the new Millennium proved to be less prone to pre-marital sex and free sex life compared to their parents, who were born in the sixties, the scientists found out. Their study was published in the academic journal Archives of Sexual Behavior.

“Our study refutes the stereotype that the current generation of young people is obsessed with promiscuous sex, what sites like Tinder are for. The collected data show that this is not like that, and that Millennials are not more promiscuous in their sexual relations than their predecessors,” says Ryne Sherman from the Atlantic University of Florida (USA).

MotherTellingDaughterHerBehavior "generation x" Children Are More Moral Than Their Parents MotherTellingDaughterHerBehavior

A team of psychologists and statisticians led by Sherman, came to this conclusion after analyzing statistics on the sexual behavior of young Americans. The data were being were collected by the national social surveys (GSS) from 1989 to the present day.

As shown by these data, contrary to the common stereotypes of the parents of these young people, their children are not more loose and free in their sexual habits than they used to be, and in many respects their children are far more modest than the contemporaries of Elvis Presley and Marilyn Monroe.

For example, approximately 15% of adolescents and young adults aged from 20 to 24 years old stated that they either did not have sexual partners before or after coming of age, or that they entered into the sexual life only after marriage. For comparison, only 6% of “the sixties” supported such celibacy.

According to the scientists, the rising levels of sexual activity among the current generation was typical only for girls, whereas among all other groups – guys or people from different ethnic minorities it either remained at the same level or even decreased.

Children Are More Moral "generation x" Children Are More Moral Than Their Parents Children Are More Moral

As noted by Sherman, among contemporary youth there is a clear trend in the lack of sexual activity who are  in their early twentieth, which is also combined with other signs of late maturation – la ow level of employment and  a lack of the desire to acquire “grown up” attributes such as a driver’s license.

What is the reason for such “conservatism” of adolescents and youth, as well as their reluctance to grow up? The scientists believe that the source of their careful choice of partners for sex can be the fact that 90s and early 2000 were the peak of the HIV and AIDS epidemic, as well as the increased availability of pornography.

Another possible reason is the tendency to developing an independent behavior and a respect for the rights of the individual, which could push many young people to abandon the “mandatory” for their parents ‘ generation of “free sex” in their youth. In addition, it is possible that some forms of sexual relations of teenagers, , is not considered sex, unlike for the representatives of “Generation X”, which may explain the discrepancies in the results, the scientists conclude.

9 Myths About Contraception

9 Myths About Contraception

Contraceptives and tenacious myths about them

Think you know everything about birth control? Learn the truth about common misconceptions and myths!

Myth 1: Birth Control Pills Add Extra WeightMyth About Contraception myth 9 Myths About Contraception Myth About Contraception 300x200

In Reality: the truth is that it all depends on the recipe. In 2011, scientists from the statistics center “Cochran Database System Review” analyzed 49 studies, which compared different contraceptives, and found no evidence that the contraceptive pill causes weight gain. However, a study in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology revealed that women who received an injection of the contraceptive drug Depo-Provera, gain 5 kg and increased body fat by 3.4% over 3 years. If you are afraid to gain weight after taking contraceptives, it would be better to consult with your doctor.

Myth 2: You Don’t Have to Take Contraceptives During Breast-Feeding

In Reality: this common myth has nothing to do with reality, and that it is likely to be the reason for many unplanned pregnancies, says Mary Jane Minkin, clinical Professor of gynecology at Yale School of Medicine. The truth is that breastfeeding with a complete rejection of infant formula, can suppress the hormones produced by the pituitary gland, which is responsible for ovulation. But although this leads to a reduced ability to conceive, breastfeeding does not guarantee 100% safety from an unplanned pregnancy. “And if you still sometimes use the infant formula, adds Professor Minkin,  your chance to avoid pregnancy equals zero”.

Myth 3: Birth Control Pills Should Be Taken at the Same Time

benefits-of-birth-control-pills myth 9 Myths About Contraception benefits of birth control pills 300x200In Reality: regardless of the common belief, taking a pill strictly at the same time every day does not affect its performance, said Vice-President of the International Medical Family Planning Union Vanessa Cullins. This myth is true just regarding “mini-pill” (a contraceptive based on the progestin, which should be taken at the same time), but the vast majority of women take birth control pills containing the combination of estrogen and progestin. However, you should stick to the schedule in case you suffer from a certain forgetfulness.

Myth 4: Long-Term Use of Birth Control Pills Lowers the Chance of Getting Pregnant in the Future

In Reality: it’s hard to believe, but it is possible to get pregnant immediately after you stop taking birth control pills, says Dr. Minkin. And this applies to all methods of contraception, with the exception of injection of Depo Provera (it can take you from 6 to 9 months before the hormones return to their normal levels allowing you to get pregnant). But even in this case, don’t overestimate your chances of avoiding an unplanned pregnancy. The result: contraceptives will not affect your ability to conceive a child in the future.

Myth 5: Modern Forms of Contraception Are Less Reliable Than the Old Ones

Myths About Contraception myth 9 Myths About Contraception Myths About ContraceptionIn Reality: Perhaps you have heard that the new contraceptives contain higher amounts of hormones and are much more dangerous than older proven drugs. The truth is, says Professor Minkin, that the new contraceptives contain fewer hormones. Although studies have revealed a slight increase in the risk of blood clots in women taking modern means of contraception; however, this risk is negligible and even lower than during pregnancy.

Myth 6: The Intra-uterine Device Should Be Put Only After a Birth of a Desirable Number of Children

In Reality: Any woman, who wants to receive a maximum guarantee against unwanted pregnancy, should speak with her gynecologist on the subject of IUDs, even if she has no children. The myth that the device should only be put when you do not plan to have children in the future has grown on the basis of the recommendations of this method of contraception to women who already gave birth to several children because their uterus and cervix were slightly dilated, which makes the installation of the helix more comfortable, professor Minkin explains. But now new variants of this device have appeared, they are smaller and the dose of hormones is suitable for women who have not given birth to children yet. Moreover, the intrauterine device gives 99% guarantee of preventing an unplanned pregnancy.

Myth 7: It Is Bad to Use Birth Control Pills to Skip Menstruation

emergency-contraception-shouldnt-be-your-first-choice-sex-ed-the-advanced-class myth 9 Myths About Contraception emergency contraception shouldnt be your first choice sex ed the advanced class 300x168In Reality: the change of the menstrual cycle by means of the contraceptive pill is considered to be something unacceptable and forbidden. “If you get a prescription for birth control pills, so the doctor has already considered you a generally healthy person who has no problems with the blood pressure, who is older than 35 and who does not smoke. And it gives you the right to change your cycle a little bit,” said professor Minkin.

Myth 8: Condoms Reduce Pleasure Significantly

In Reality: forget about the bad reputation of condoms. Both men and women get the same pleasure from sex with a condom or without — according to a recent study in the Journal of Sexual Medicine. So if you want to avoid hormonal changes associated with birth control pills, do not rush to reject this option.

Myth 9: The Body Needs “Rest” From Pills

In Reality: the only reason to refuse contraception is a desire to get pregnant. Otherwise, stick to the chosen method of contraception as long as you need, recommends Professor Minkin.

Dry Drowning: First Aid


During a vacation at sea you need to be ready to provide first aid to the drowning. Approximately in 15% of cases, drowning people are dying not due to the fact that the water floods the lungs, but as a result of mechanical asphyxia due to spasm in the throat. If you act quickly, they can help.

Dry Drowning or Wet Drowning?

During the genuine or wet, drowning lungs and trachea are full of water. The skin has a distinct bluish tint. The mouth and nose foam richly, due to the changes in the blood composition during drowning.

During the “dry” drowning there is not so much water in the lungs. A spasm of the throat slit does not allow water to penetrate into the bronchi and lungs, even if the person is in the water and unconscious. But all the water is in the stomach.

In the corners of the lips a foamy substance can be seen. In this case, a person can die not because of water, but because of the lack of air and cardiac arrest.

drowning Dry Drowning: First Aid First Aid
Hospital staff rushing a patient off to theatre in urgency

Most often, dry drowning happens with children and women, or those who are drowning in chlorinated pool water. Even if the victim lost consciousness, the heart beat cannot be heard, still there is some time for the person to be saved, if we act wisely.

First Aid

You should wipe the person’s mouth immediately from silt, slime, water slime, in a word, everything that can prevent to carry out artificial respiration.

The reflexively clenched jaw can be opened, if you press down hard on the angles of the jaw, where the upper and lower teeth converge.

It is better to provide first aid together: one person does chest compressions, and the second does mouth-to-mouth. You should tilt the victim’s head to open his mouth, pinch the nose with your fingers and breathe the air into his lungs: 12-16 breaths per minute.

Woman Giving Mouth to Mouth to a Young Boy drowning Dry Drowning: First Aid Dry Drowning
Woman Giving Mouth to Mouth to a Young Boy

Artificial respiration should be continued even after the person begins to breathe on his own until he recovers consciousness or until the skin is of normal color and breathing is normal again. In between breaths the other person does chest compressions.

When the activity of the heart is restored, place the victim on your hip and several times (but not too much, not to break the ribs) press on the lateral side of the chest sharply to release the water. Then again place the victim on his back.

Even if the person has not lost consciousness when drowning and after first aid feels good, he should still be taken to the hospital because of the risk of the development of pulmonary edema.

Chemical Skin Burns: Causes and Consequences


Chemical burns occur as a result of aggressive exposure to chemicals on the skin or mucous membranes.

In some cases, signs of chemical burns of the skin occur directly after the burn, in others only after several hours or days.

The danger is that the damage and destruction of tissue are able to occur much later after the first contact with the chemical agent; the damaged area can continue the absorption of the substance.

There are three degrees of chemical burns depending on the duration of action of the chemical, its temperature, the place of its maximum concentration, the nature of effects on tissue:

  • First degree is redness (or erythema);
  • Second degree – blistering;
  • Third degree – necrosis.

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Symptoms of Chemical Burns of the Skin

The main symptoms of chemical burns are:

  • Sodium_hydroxide_burn skin Chemical Skin Burns: Causes and Consequences Sodium hydroxide burn 239x300The skin changes color to bright red or pale blue;
  • Cough, nausea and vomiting;
  • Weakness, dizziness, loss of consciousness;
  • Blisters, swelling, discomfort of the skin in areas of exposure to the chemical;
  • Blurred vision (in case of the contact with the chemical agent in the eye area);
  • Itching or rash;
  • Shortness of breath and pain in the abdomen.

In the absence of or failure to provide timely and qualified medical aid, different complications could also appear, for example, scar tissue, scabs of various shades and colors (from black and brown to white), sepsis, shock.


What Cause Chemical Burns:

  • Acid (the most powerful striking action has a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids, the so – called Aqua Regia, a less pronounced impact from sulfuric, hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, acetic and other acids);
  • Lye (caustic potash, caustic soda, etc.);
  • Phosphorus;
  • Salts of some heavy metals (mercuric chloride, zinc chloride, copper sulfate, silver nitrate, etc.);
  • Other substances which have cauterizing effect (kerosene, gasoline, bitumen, some volatile oils, etc.).

Chemical Skin Burns skin Chemical Skin Burns: Causes and Consequences 159098626 1024x699

At home chemical burns often occur during incorrect or careless use of bleach, a variety of pipe cleaners or metals, concrete mixes, chlorine agents, etc.

Chemical Burn of the Skin: Consequences

The damaging effects of acids and alkalis is due to the ability to take water from tissues, the ability to actively enter into chemical compounds and cause coagulation of protein, destruction of the colloid state in the cells.

And the destructive power of acids is directly related to their concentration: weak solutions can cause mild damage to the dermal layers of the skin, but prolonged exposure can cause the appearance of blisters. Acids are also able to cause third degree chemical burns.

The negative impact of alkalis on the tissues is somewhat slower than with acids. They do not cause the coagulation of proteins but destroy (dissolve): they penetrate deep into the tissue and hydrolyze fats. As a rule, the alkali of higher concentration is stronger.

Phosphorus burns due to the ability of phosphorus to be easily ignited (including spontaneous combustion), are often combined with thermal burns and are very sharp and quite painful. In addition, certain types of phosphorus are poisonous or toxic, which increases their destructive effect on tissue.

Chemical Skin Burns skin Chemical Skin Burns: Causes and Consequences Treat a Burn Step 25 1024x768

Chemical burns, caused by salts of heavy metals (like burns from acids), lead to tissue dehydration and coagulation of proteins. The result is the formation of crust of dead tissue that impedes a negative effect on deeper layers.

It should be noted that the chemicals have a more harmful effect on the mucous membranes than on the skin. In other words, chemical burns to the eyes or esophagus represent the most severe form of chemical burns, often accompanied by various complications (including bleeding).

Chemical Skin Burns: Safety Precautions

In order to prevent chemical burns it is necessary to observe security measures:

  • Do not leave toxic or corrosive substances without supervision;
  • Keep containers with these substances tightly sealed and provide them with appropriate warning labels;
  • Do not store chemicals near food or medicines;
  • Do not stir household cleaning products containing even small amounts of toxic substances by yourself;
  • Ventilate the room thoroughly after using chemical products, which are potentially capable of releasing fumes.

Food For the Heart


To reverse the development of atherosclerosis (cholesterol deposits in the arteries, threatening cardiovascular diseases) is possible when using proper nutrition.

Eating certain foods is essential for the prevention of the relapse in patients who have had to go through such procedures as bypass surgery on the arteries or fixing vessels to restore blood flow.

Food for the Heart: Fruits and Vegetables

The first place among heart-healthy foods, which can help to normalize blood pressure, weight loss and prevention of diabetes goes to vegetables and fruits.

healthyheart heart Food For the Heart healthyheart 300x246Fiber contained in vegetables helps to remove low-density lipoproteins (“bad” cholesterol) from the body.

Fatty meats and dairy products which are rich in protein raise cholesterol in the blood. To reduce the threat to a minimum, there should be a balance between animal and vegetable proteins.

Food for the Heart: the Right Fish

Fatty fish with lots of omega-3 fatty acid enrich the body with protein and help to reduce cholesterol.

heart Food For the Heart the Right Fish 300x200
Fish is considered to be a “heart healthy”

It is always good to eat slow carbohydrates (made of durum wheat, cereals, grain bread). Simple carbohydrates that are quickly digested and give a brief feeling of satiety should be avoided.

The heart needs less salt and more water. Excess of salt can cause the increasing blood pressure, the lack of it can cause fatigue and false hunger.

Meals should be regular and fractional (5-6 times a day). Rare meals or a habit to skip one of the meals lead to overeating, which is extremely harmful for the heart.


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